Chinese teen sells his kidney for an iPad 2 84tweetsretweet

December 11, 2011 Leave a comment

ipad2A Chinese teenager was so desperate to acquire the new iPad 2 that he sold one of his kidneys for just £2,000 to pay for it, according to reports.

The 17-year-old boy, identified only by his surname, “Zheng”, confessed to his mother that he had sold the kidney after spotting an online advertisement offering cash to anyone prepared to become an organ donor.

“I wanted to buy an iPad 2, but I didn’t have the money,” the boy told Shenzhen TV in the southern province of Guangdong, “When I surfed the internet I found an advert posted online by agent saying they were able to pay RMB20,000 to buy a kidney.” After negotiations, the boy travelled north to the city of Chenzhou in Hunan Province where the kidney was removed at a local hospital which discharged him after three days, paying a total of RMB22,000 for the organ.

Trading organs online is a common practice in China, despite repeated attempts by China’s government to stamp out the practice. Last year Japanese television reported that a group of “transplant tourists” had paid £50,000 to receive new kidneys in China.

According to official statistics more than a million people in China need a transplant every year, but fewer than 10,000 receive organs, driving an almost unstoppable black-market organ trade that enriches brokers, doctors and corrupt government officials.


The boy, who has suffered complications following the surgery, returned home but was unable to keep what he had done from his mother.

“When he came back, he had a laptop and a new Apple handset,” his mother, identified as Miss Liu, told the station, showing off the livid red scar where her son’s kidney was removed, “I wanted to know how he had got so much money and he finally confessed that he had sold one of his kidneys.”

The mother took the son back to Chenzhou to report the crime to the police, however, the mobiles of the three agents that Zheng had contacted were all switched off.

The hospital, which admitted contracting out its urology department to a private businessman, denied any knowledge of the surgery.

The case, which caused an online furore, was cited by some as an extreme example of the rampant materialism of modern China.

Thousands of comments were posted on internet discussion groups, with many lamenting the lack of rule of law in China and the “immorality” of the new, ‘capitalist’ China.

“This is a failure of education, the first purpose of which is to ‘propagate morality’,” said one comment on Hong Kong’s Phoenix TV website, “This teenager’s stupid behaviour is a manifestation of his radically materialistic values.” “To sell a kidney in order to buy consumer goods? What vanity!” added another, “It is undeniable that modern Chinese teenagers’ morality is declining. This is something we must all think about.”

Apple products like the iPhone and the iPad are in huge demand in China, and are seen as a badge of wealth and sophistication by young consumers.

Last month scuffles broke out among desperate shoppers outside several Beijing Apple Stores as they queued to buy the newly launched iPad2 and white iPhone4.
Source: The Telegraph

Categories: Funny

Atheists sue Little Rock’s city bus line 30tweetsretweet

December 11, 2011 Leave a comment

Atheists sue over bus ads on God-free lifestyle

LITTLE ROCK, Ark (Reuters) – A coalition of atheists is accusing Little Rock’s city bus line of violating their rights to free speech in a fight to place ads on public buses praising a God-free lifestyle.

The Central Arkansas Coalition of Reason alleged in a lawsuit that the Central Arkansas Transit Authority and its advertising agency are discriminating against the group because they’re being required to pay tens of thousands of dollars to put $5,000 worth of ads on 18 buses.

The ads would read: “Are you good without God? Millions are.”

Other groups, including churches, have not been required to pay the fee, which amounts to $36,000 in insurance in case of an attack on the buses by angry Christians, according to the lawsuit.


Categories: Funny

World’s Most Expensive Golf Course

December 11, 2011 Leave a comment
 Dutch Docklands, a player in the world of floating technologies, (or making land where there was no land), has announced plans to build a $500 million floating golf course off the Maldives coast. While there are plenty of golf courses that claim to be “on” the water, this one would quite literally be atop the Indian Ocean.

golf courseThe concept is a series of man-made islands with one or more holes on each, linked by transparent undersea tunnels. Golfers walk or ride through these submerged pathways, taking in the seafloor sights while pondering which iron to use next. And the clubhouse? You’ll have to take an elevator to the sea bottom to get to it. At half a billion dollars, it will be by far the most expensive golf course ever built.

More pictures below. (more…)

Categories: Funny

funny facebook status

December 11, 2011 Leave a comment
  • sirdawko Barman says to Paddy “Your glass is empty, fancy another one?” lookin puzzled Paddy says “Why would l want two empty glasses?”
    Posted by sirdawko  09/12/2011 12:59 PM   8 Like
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  • sirdawko The wife said to me yesterday ” I bet you can’t go one day without cracking a joke about my periods”…..” You’re on ” I said
    Posted by sirdawko  08/12/2011 09:55 AM   14 Like
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  • Slickpony I overheard a woman yelling at her husband for paying more attention to Facebook than to her,or at least that’s what I think she said to me.
    Posted by Slickpony  08/12/2011 05:57 AM   11 Like
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  • Slickpony so….some guy at my kids school just asked me if I was a homosexual….I believe his exact words were….”Do you like Twilight”?….
    Posted by Slickpony  08/12/2011 05:51 AM   14 Like
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  • sirdawko If reincarnation existed most men would come back as a spider … so they could finally hear a woman say…. oh my god its huge.
    Posted by sirdawko  07/12/2011 02:54 PM   14 Like
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  • Haha_nuts My friends wife asked me to prepare his son for his first day of school. Hes a ginger so I punched him in the face and stole his lunch money
    Posted by Haha_nuts  05/12/2011 07:12 PM   11 Like
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  • sirdawko Been sacked frm my A&E job.Apparently winking at the patient’s relatives after the surgeon says”she’s got a really deep gash”is”insensitive”
    Posted by sirdawko  05/12/2011 05:59 PM   11 Like
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  • DJ Dusty Saw a busker with a didgeridoo and he was playing “Dancing Queen” on it. That’s Aboriginal, I thought.
    Posted by DJ Dusty  05/12/2011 01:08 PM   6 Like
Categories: Funny

Redsnow 0.9.9 B5 released to Jailbreak iOS 5 / iOS 4.3.3 on iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch

December 11, 2011 Leave a comment

Redsnow 0.9.9b5 is rolled out by iPhone Dev Team to support iOS 5 jailbreak on all devices except iPad 2. However, it is to be noted that this version provides tethered jailbreak on iOS 5 devices. Those users who are still looking for untethered jailbreak on iOS 4.3.1, iOS 4.3.2 and iOS 4.3.3 can still use Redsnow 0.9.6 RC16. First we will post the complete step by step guide for iOS 5 users and after that some lines about previous jailbreak.

If you rely on iPhone Unlock, never follow this guide. Head over to this post for complete step by step guide on “How to Unlock iOS 5″ to unlock and jailbreak your device at the same time.

Redsn0w 0.9.9 b5 to Jailbreak iOS 5:

Note: All those users who rely on unlock must not try this guide. In fact they must not upgrade their devices to iOS 5 otherwise they may lose the unlock ability forever.


  • iOS 5 Firmware [the links are at the bottom of this guide]
  • iTunes 10.5
  • Redsn0w 0.9.9 b5
  • And of course an iPhone or iPad/iPod Touch


Step 1: Download iTunes 10.5 and install it on your PC.

Step 2: Sync and back up your iPhone using iTunes.

Step 3: After you have backed up your device, update it to iOS 5.

Step 4: Download Redsn0w 0.9.9 b5 and launch it.

Redsnow 0.9.9 b5

Step 5: Click on “Jailbreak” option.

Blank Cydia

Step 6: Now select “Install Cydia” and if you want to use the Multitask Gestures on iOS 5, select the third option too, as shown in this picture.

Step 7: Switch off your device and put it into DFU mode. Follow the on-screen instructions to ener DFU mode. The instructions are:


  • Switch off your device.
  • Hold down the power button for 3 seconds.
  • Without releasing the Power Button, hold down the Home Button too.
  • Keep pressed both buttons for 10 seconds.
  • Now release the Power button but keep pressed the Home button for further 15 seconds.
  • You will see a blank (black) screen that indicates your device is in DFU mode.

Step 8: Sit back and let Redsn0w do the rest of the work. Redsn0w will install the required files on iPhone.

Step 9: After your device restarts, you will notice a new icon named “Cydia” which might be blank at this stage. Now again launch Redsn0w, go to Extras and select “Just boot” option. Follow the on-screen instructions which are similar to Step 7.  Now when your device restarts you will notice “Redsn0w logo”. After the deice has restarted, you can see “Cydia” icon.


Fire up Cydia, tap on User option and start installing your favorite tweaks and Cydia apps. If you want to get further help on this jailbreak guide for iOS 5, please follow us on Twitter/Facebook.


Download Redsn0w 0.9.9b5:

  • Download Redsn0w 0.9.9b4 for Windows [Beta 5 version for Windows is under testing, but this beta 4 will also work].
  • Download Redsn0w 0.9.9 b5 for Mac

Download iOS 5.

Download iTunes 10.5 which is required to install the iOS 5  on your device.

Redsn0w 0.9.6 RC 16 to Jailbreak iOS 4.3.3/iOS 4.3.2/iOS 4.3.1:

Redsnow 0.9.6 RC16 has been released to jailbreak iOS 4.3.1 [iOS 4.3.2] and iOS 4.3.3. This new and updated version provides untethered jailbreak on all idevices except iPad 2.

Update: Redsnow RC16 is now available. It fixes side switch vibration issue on iPhone 4 and iPhone 3GS. For more details head over to this post.

As usual Redsn0w 0.9.6 is available for both Windows and Mac users. Head over to “How to Jailbreak iOS 4.3.1 Untethered Using Redsn0w 0.9.6 RC9 [HowTo Guide]” for complete step by step jailbreak tutorial.

Redsnow 0.9.6 RC15 Update Notes:

… three in a row!  Apple released iOS 4.3.3 on Wednesday, and once again the untethered jailbreak exploit that@i0n1c created for 4.3.1 still works.  That makes it an unprecedented three firmwares where the same userland exploit works.  We’re not exactly sure why Apple hasn’t fixed the hole yet, but we’re not complaining!

Today’s PwnageTool and redsn0w incorporate @i0n1c’s port to 4.3.3 (it’s ironic that such a long-lasting untether doesn’t even have an official name!).  It also of course uses geohot’s limera1n bootrom exploit to inject the jailbreak.  The 4.3.3 untether works on all devices that actually support 4.3.3 except for the iPad2:

  • iPhone3GS
  • iPhone4 (GSM)
  • iPod touch 3G
  • iPod touch 4G
  • iPad1
  • AppleTV2G (v4.3 8F202)

Some things to note:

  1. ultrasn0w unlockers must stay away from redsn0w!  Use only a custom IPSW to update to 4.3.3, to avoid updating your baseband. There are plenty of tutorials for both redsn0w and PwnageTool at sites like shoutpedia.  Or feel free to ask away in our comments section below.
  2. ultrasn0w has been updated to v1.2.3 to be compatible with iOS 4.3.3 and earlier (the ultrasn0w update does not include any new baseband support!).Please reboot your iPhone using the normal “slide to power off” swipe after installing ultrasn0w 1.2.3.
  3. By popular demand, redsn0w now allows you to enable multitasking gestures (although most will find it useful only on iPads).
  4. iPad2 update:  The iPad2 jailbreak remains under development.  As you may know, the original exploit @comex developed in the first week of the iPad2 release was mysteriously fixed by Apple within days of its development.  Partly because of this, don’t expect much public discussion of the iPad2 jailbreak until it’s actually finished and ready for release (and please avoid asking about it).  In all liklihood, it will be a userland exploit like the first (unreleased) one, not dependent on bootrom dumps.  The first one can’t be released even for those with the original 4.3 firmware due to legal (distribution) reasons.

As always, please feel free to ask for help or advice in our comment section, with out friendly moderators Confucious, sherif_hashim, dhlizard, Frank55, and subarurider (and many other very knowledgable commenters too!)

Other Redsnow Updates:

  • Redsnow 0.9.6 RC 12 adds the option to enable boot animations and removes some misleading information from settings related to side switch. You can read the more details in our this post.
  • Redsn0w 0.9.6 RC13b is now available to jailbreak iOS 4.3.2 on all idevices except iPad 2. iPhone 4 untethered jailbreak support has been dropped from this update due to some problem on this model. Tethered jailbreak is still possible on iOS 4.3.2 using this new version. Download RC13b from here.
  • Redsnow 0.9.5 RC14  provides untethered iOS 4.3.2 jailbreak on all idevices including iPhone 4 but except iPad 2. Get it here.

If you have already jailbroken (tethered) your device using the early version of Sn0wbreeze or Unofficial PwnageTool bundles, you can simply run the Redsnow over it to get untethered jailbreak.


  • Download redsnow 0.9.6 RC 12 for Windows
  • Download redsnow 0.9.6 rc12 for Mac
  • Download Redsow 0.9.6 RC14 on Mac
  • Download Redsnow 0.9.6 RC 14 on Windows
  • Download Redsnow 0.9.6 RC15 for Mac
  • Download Redsnow 0.9.6 RC15 onWindows
  • Download iOS 4.3.3 for your idevice
  • Download Redsnow 0.9.6 RC16 for OS X
  • Download Redsnow 0.9.6 RC16 for Windows

How to Jailbreak and Unlock iOS 4.3.3:

The step by step jailbreak guide using redsnow is posted in this post and if you are still on unlockable baseband, head over to this post for unlock instructions.

If you are looking for iPad 2 Jailbreak, read how to jailbreak it with JailbreakMe 3.0. While iOS 5 beta 5 jailbreakers need to download Redsn0w 0.9.8b5 which provides tethered jailbreak on all idevices except iPad 2.

Categories: Hacking tips

Dubai based Millennium Finance Corporation investment bank: the inside story, Oct 2009

November 27, 2011 Leave a comment


These confidential bank documents from the investment bank MFC (Millennium Finance Corporation), suggest that the company is out of cash, among other matters. The documents give exact balance per division. This collection and background information form a follow up to our previous leak on the MFC.

According to our source:

1.As of august 10th, MFC wasn’t compliant with the regulatory capital requirement (as shown on the attached internal document). However the DFSA hasn’t removed the company’s licence as it would arm its shareholders reputation (Dubai Islamic Bank and KIPCO) which are linked to the Dubai Emirate’s ruling family.

2.Sajid Barkat, Head of Administration, came back on duty in September despite his suspension by the Interim Management Committee in May 2009 due to the role he played in the fraud.

3.Following his takeover in August, Keba Keinde fired an additional dozen from the 25 people staff remaining. Staff was reported to be in excess of 60 in January 2009.

4.In addition to that, several employees have been suspended regarding an investigation about the Wikileaks online leak.

5.In the meantime each member of the management team is still paid more than USD 250,000 yearly of base salary (+ bonus), the highest salary bracket of the firm if we exclude the CEO position. Next to that, most of the cost rationalization measures they took consisted in low-wage support staff layoffs -with minimal severance package. See “compensation per employee” file.

6.Zana Masle the Head of HR has been fired by MFC in Q1-09 following an internal investigation regarding a DIFC visa fraud (she issued a visa to an unauthorized person under the company’s sponsorship). Neither shareholders, the Regulator (DFSA) or her new employer have been informed by the CEO of these findings.

7.In March 2009, the management started a roadshow, which costs have been incurred to the company, to raise fresh funds in order to exit, Dubai Islamic Bank, one of the three major shareholders (see attached documents showing exit scenarios) and solve the out of cash situation. This action has been taken without informing the shareholders.

8.An investigation is being conducted by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s VEVAK agency regarding the advisory mandate given to MFC for the issuance of the 3rd mobile licence. Several bidders (including Etisalat and Zain) complained about irregularities during the process through their respective governments. The fee due to MFC is estimated to be over USD 30 million, which is far above the sector standards. It has been reported that MFC is responsible for the failure of the process, due to its internal issues and willingness to preserve the personal interests of the CEO and his AFA partners. The licence has been finally awarded to a local consortium while 5 international bidders were on track one year ago (link below).

9.The Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) of the US Department of the Treasury has been involved in the UAE Government’s investigation.

US Securities & Exchange Commission case against KIPCO:


Washington, D.C., July 23, 2009 — The Securities and Exchange Commission today charged a trader located in Kuwait and three related foreign entities for engaging in an illicit scheme through which they reaped millions of dollars in profits when trading around hoax offers to acquire U.S. companies. The SEC has obtained an emergency court order to freeze more than $5 million in trading profits located in various U.S. accounts in their names.

The SEC filed its charges and obtained the asset freeze within days of the latest hoax offer. The SEC alleges that Hazem Khalid Al-Braikan and the related entities traded around false news of a purported tender offer by a Middle East investment group to acquire Harman International Industries. Aphony announcement publicizing the hoax offer was faxed to media outlets on Sunday, July 19, and subsequently reported on the Internet. Harman’s share price climbed more than 40 percent in pre-market trading on Monday, July 20.

Additional Materials

The SEC further alleges that two of the entities similarly traded around a hoax tender offer in April 2009, when a Kuwaiti newspaper reported that a consortium of Middle East companies were offering to purchase Textron Inc. This offer also turned out to be false. Al-Braikan and the entities amassed positions in securities of a company shortly before a bogus offer was publicized. They then sold their securities at prices inflated by the false information to reap their illicit profits.

“This case exemplifies the SEC’s swift and surgical investigative skills and our determination to follow the trail wherever it leads,” said Robert Khuzami, Director of the SEC’s Division of Enforcement.

The SEC’s complaint, filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, alleges that Al-Braikan traded in an account in his own name and has been associated with each of the three entities that also traded: United Gulf Bank (B.S.C.); KIPCO Asset Management Company (KAMCO); and Al-Raya Investment Company.

Upon the SEC’s request, the Honorable John G. Koeltl issued a temporary restraining order freezing the defendants’ assets. The order also grants expedited discovery and an order permitting alternative means of service.

The Commission alleges in its complaint that the defendants violated Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5, antifraud provisions of the federal securities laws. The complaint seeks a permanent injunction, disgorgement of ill-gotten gains with prejudgment interest, and financial penalties.

The Commission appreciates the assistance of New York Stock Exchange Regulation and the Options Regulatory Surveillance Authority in this matter.

The Commission’s investigation is continuing.



Press articles related to the situation:

UPDATE 1-Iran consortium to get 3rd mobile phone license-paper

Oct 19 (Reuters) – A domestic consortium will be awarded Iran’s third mobile phone license, Etemad newspaper quoted Ramezan Ali Sadeghzadeh, deputy head of the development unit of Iran’s Industries Organisation, as saying.

He did not give any further details.

In July, another Iranian newspaper said Iran had pulled its third mobile licence from Kuwait’s Mobile Telecommunications Co (Zain) and would hold a fresh tender, saying Zain had not fulfilled its obligations.

Iran handed Zain the licence in May after stripping it from Emirates Telecommunications Corp (Etisalat).

Iran said at the time Etisalat and Iran’s Tamin Telecom, which won the tender in January, had not fulfilled the necessary collateral and payments of the licence fee at the appropriate time.

Etisalat, one of the largest Arab telecommunications companies by market value, had said it expected to invest up to $5 billion over five years in its Iran operations.

Iran has a mobile penetration rate of less than 60 percent in a market where about half of its 70 million population is under 25 years of age.

The current telecom operators in Iran are the state-owned Iran Telecommunication Company (TCI) and Irancell, which is 49 percent owned by MTN Group (MTNJ.J), sub-Saharan Africa’s biggest mobile phone company.

Iran’s nuclear row with the West has deterred many foreign companies from doing business in the country.

U.S. sanctions bar U.S. companies from operating in Iran and United Nations sanctions have made other firms wary of investing. However, analysts say the size of the market and its energy riches could still make it an attractive prospect.

Categories: Ethics

Space elevator

November 27, 2011 Leave a comment

A space elevator for Earth would consist of a cable anchored to the Earth’s equator, reaching into space. By attaching a counterweight at the end (or by further extending the cable upward for the same purpose), the center of massis kept well above the level of geostationary orbit. Inertia ensures that the cable remains stretched taut, countering the gravitational pull downward. Once above the geostationary level, climbers would have weight in the upward direction as the centrifugal force overpowers gravity. (The diagram is to scale. The height of the counterweight varies by design and a typical, workable height is shown.)

space elevator, also known as a geostationary orbital tether or a beanstalk, is a proposed non-rocket spacelaunch structure (a structure designed to transport material from a celestial body’s surface into space). Many elevator variants have been  suggested, all of which involve travelling along a fixed structure instead of using rocket-powered space launch, most often a cable that reaches from the surface of the Earth on or near the equator to geostationary orbit (GSO) and a counterweight outside of the geostationary orbit.

Discussion of a space elevator dates back to 1895 when Konstantin Tsiolkovsky[1] proposed a free-standing “Tsiolkovsky Tower” reaching from the surface of Earth to geostationary orbit 35,786 km (22,236 mi) up. Like all buildings, Tsiolkovsky’s structure would be under compression, supporting its weight from below. Since 1959, most ideas for space elevators have focused on purely tensile structures, with the weight of the system held up from above. In the tensile concepts, a space tether reaches from a large mass (the counterweight) beyond geostationary orbit to the ground. This structure is held in tension between Earth and the counterweight like a guitar string held taut. Space elevators have also sometimes been referred to as beanstalksspace bridgesspace liftsspace laddersskyhooksorbital towers, or orbital elevators.

While some variants of the space elevator concept are technologically feasible, current technology is not capable of manufacturing tether materials that are sufficiently strong and light to build an Earth-based space elevator of the geostationary orbital tether type. Recent concepts for a space elevator are notable for their plans to use carbon nanotube or boron nitride nanotube based materials as the tensile element in the tether design, since the measured strength of carbon nanotubes appears great enough to make this possible.[2] Technology as of 1978 could produce elevators for locations in the solar system with weaker gravitational fields, such as the Moon or Mars.[3]

For human riders on an Earth-based elevator, adequate protection against radiation would likely need to be provided, depending on the transit time through the Van Allen belts. At the transit times expected for early systems, radiation due to the Van Allen belts would, if unshielded, give a dose well above permitted levels.[4]

21st century

After the development of carbon nanotubes in the 1990s, engineer David Smitherman of NASA/Marshall’s Advanced Projects Office realized that the high strength of these materials might make the concept of an orbital skyhook feasible, and put together a workshop at the Marshall Space Flight Center, inviting many scientists and engineers to discuss concepts and compile plans for an elevator to turn the concept into a reality.[11] The publication he edited, compiling information from the workshop, “Space Elevators: An Advanced Earth-Space Infrastructure for the New Millennium”,[12] provides an introduction to the state of the technology at the time, and summarizes the findings.

Another American scientist, Bradley C. Edwards, suggested creating a 100,000 km (62,000 mi) long paper-thin ribbon using a carbon nanotube composite material. He chose a ribbon type structure rather than a cable because that structure might stand a greater chance of surviving impacts by meteoroids. Supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Edwards’ work was expanded to cover the deployment scenario, climber design, power delivery system, orbital debris avoidance, anchor system, surviving atomic oxygen, avoiding lightning and hurricanes by locating the anchor in the western equatorial Pacific, construction costs, construction schedule, and environmental hazards.[13][14] The largest holdup to Edwards’ proposed design is the technological limit of the tether material. His calculations call for a fiber composed of epoxy-bonded carbon nanotubes with a minimal tensile strength of 130 GPa (19 million psi) (including a safety factor of 2); however, tests in 2000 of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which should be notably stronger than an epoxy-bonded rope, indicated the strongest measured as 52 GPa (7.5 million psi).[15] Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been measured with tensile strengths up to 63 GPa (9 million psi).[16]

To speed space elevator development, proponents are planning several competitions, similar to the Ansari X Prize, for relevant technologies.[17][18] Among them are Elevator:2010, which will organize annual competitions for climbers, ribbons and power-beaming systems, the Robogames Space Elevator Ribbon Climbing competition,[19] as well as NASA’s Centennial Challenges program, which, in March 2005, announced a partnership with the Spaceward Foundation (the operator of Elevator:2010), raising the total value of prizes to US$400,000.[20][21]The first European Space Elevator Challenge (EuSEC) to establish a climber structure took place in August 2011.[22]

In 2005, “the LiftPort Group of space elevator companies announced that it will be building a carbon nanotube manufacturing plant in Millville, New Jersey, to supply various glass, plastic and metal companies with these strong materials. Although LiftPort hopes to eventually use carbon nanotubes in the construction of a 100,000 km (62,000 mi) space elevator, this move will allow it to make money in the short term and conduct research and development into new production methods. The goal was a space elevator launch in 2010.”[dated info][23] On February 13, 2006 the LiftPort Group announced that, earlier the same month, they had tested a mile of “space-elevator tether” made of carbon-fiber composite strings and fiberglass tape measuring 5 cm (2 in) wide and 1 mm (approx. 6 sheets of paper) thick, lifted with balloons.[24]

In 2007, Elevator:2010 held the 2007 Space Elevator games, which featured US$500,000 awards for each of the two competitions, (US$1,000,000 total) as well as an additional US$4,000,000 to be awarded over the next five years for space elevator related technologies.[25] No teams won the competition, but a team from MIT entered the first 2-gram (0.07 oz), 100% carbon nanotube entry into the competition.[26] Japan held an international conference in November 2008 to draw up a timetable for building the elevator.[27]

In 2008 the book “Leaving the Planet by Space Elevator”, by Dr. Brad Edwards and Philip Ragan, was published in Japanese and entered the Japanese best seller list.[28] This has led to a Japanese announcement of intent to build a Space Elevator at a projected price tag of a trillion yen (£5 billion/ $8 billion). In a report by Leo Lewis, Tokyo correspondent of The Times newspaper in England, plans by Shuichi Ono, chairman of the Japan Space Elevator Association, are unveiled. Lewis says: “Japan is increasingly confident that its sprawling academic and industrial base can solve those [construction] issues, and has even put the astonishingly low price tag of a trillion yen (£5 billion/ $8 billion) on building the elevator. Japan is renowned as a global leader in the precision engineering and high-quality material production without which the idea could never be possible.”[27] In 2011, Google was revealed to be working on plans for a space elevator at its secretive Google X Lab location. [29]


One concept for the space elevator has it tethered to a mobile seagoing platform.

There are a variety of space elevator designs. Almost every design includes a base station, a cable, climbers, and a counterweight. Earth’s rotation creates upward centrifugal force on the counterweight. The counterweight is held down by the cable while the cable is held up and taut by the counterweight. The base station anchors the whole system to the surface of the Earth. Climbers climb up and down the cable with cargo.

Base station

The base station designs typically fall into two categories—mobile and stationary. Mobile stations are typically large oceangoing vessels.[30]Stationary platforms would generally be located in high-altitude locations, such as on top of mountains, or even potentially on high towers.[6]

Mobile platforms have the advantage of being able to maneuver to avoid high winds, storms, and space debris. While stationary platforms don’t have these advantages, they typically would have access to cheaper and more reliable power sources, and require a shorter cable. While the decrease in cable length may seem minimal (no more than a few kilometers), the cable thickness could be reduced over its entire length, significantly reducing the total weight.


Carbon nanotubes are one of the candidates for a cable material

A space elevator cable must carry its own weight as well as the (smaller) weight of climbers. The required strength of the cable will vary along its length, since at various points it has to carry the weight of the cable below, or provide a centripetal force to retain the cable and counterweight above. In a 1998 report,[31] NASA researchers noted that “maximum stress [on a space elevator cable] is at geosynchronous altitude so the cable must be thickest there and taper exponentially as it approaches Earth. Any potential material may be characterized by the taper factor – the ratio between the cable’s radius at geosynchronous altitude and at the Earth’s surface.”

The cable must be made of a material with a large tensile strength/density ratio. For example, the Edwards space elevator design assumes a cable material with a specific strength of at least 100,000 kN/(kg/m).[32] This value takes into consideration the entire weight of the space elevator. A space elevator would need a material capable of sustaining a length of 4,960 kilometers (3,080 mi) of its own weight at sea level to reach a geostationary altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi) without tapering and without breaking.[33] Therefore, a material with very high strength and lightness is needed.

For comparison, metals like titanium, steel or aluminium alloys have breaking lengths of only 20–30 km. Modern fibre materials such as kevlar,fibreglass and carbon/graphite fibre have breaking lengths of 100–400 km. Quartz fibers have an advantage that they can be drawn to a length of hundreds of kilometers[34] even with the present-day technology. Nanoengineered materials such as carbon nanotubes and, more recently discovered, graphene ribbons (perfect two-dimensional sheets of carbon) are expected to have breaking lengths of 5000–6000 km at sea level, and also are able to conduct electrical power.

Carbon is such a good candidate material (for high specific strength) because, as only the 6th element in the periodic table, it has very few of the nucleons which contribute most of the dead weight of any material (whereas most of the interatomic bonding forces are contributed by only the outer few electrons); the challenge now remains to extend to macroscopic sizes the production of such material that are still perfect on the microscopic scale (as microscopic defects are most responsible for material weakness). The current (2009) carbon nanotube technology allows growing tubes up to a few tens of centimeters


A seagoing anchor station would incidentally act as a deep-water seaport.


A space elevator cannot be an elevator in the typical sense (with moving cables) due to the need for the cable to be significantly wider at the center than the tips. While various designs employing moving cables have been proposed, most cable designs call for the “elevator” to climb up a stationary cable.

A conceptual drawing of a space elevator climbing through the clouds.

Climbers cover a wide range of designs. On elevator designs whose cables are planar ribbons, most propose to use pairs of rollers to hold the cable with friction.

Climbers must be paced at optimal timings so as to minimize cable stress and oscillations and to maximize throughput. Lighter climbers can be sent up more often, with several going up at the same time. This increases throughput somewhat, but lowers the mass of each individual payload.[citation needed]

As the car climbs, the elevator takes on a 1 degree lean, due to the top of the elevator traveling faster than the bottom around the Earth (Coriolis force). This diagram is not to scale.

The horizontal speed of each part of the cable increases with altitude, proportional to distance from the center of the Earth, reaching orbital velocity at geostationary orbit. Therefore as a payload is lifted up a space elevator, it needs to gain not only altitude but angular momentum(horizontal speed) as well. This angular momentum is taken from the Earth’s own rotation. As the climber ascends it is initially moving slightly more slowly than the cable that it moves onto (Coriolis force) and thus the climber “drags” on the cable.

The overall effect of the centrifugal force acting on the cable causes it to constantly try to return to the energetically favourable vertical orientation, so after an object has been lifted on the cable the counterweight will swing back towards the vertical like an inverted pendulum. Space elevators and their loads will be designed so that the center of mass is always well-enough above the level of geostationary orbit to hold up the whole system. Lift and descent operations must be carefully planned so as to keep the pendulum-like motion of the counterweight around the tether point under control.

By the time the payload has reached GEO the angular momentum (horizontal speed) is enough that the payload is in orbit.

The opposite process would occur for payloads descending the elevator, tilting the cable eastwards and insignificantly increasing Earth’s rotation speed.

It has also been proposed to use a second cable attached to a platform to lift payload up the main cable, since the lifting device would not have to deal with its own weight against Earth’s gravity. Out of the many proposed theories, powering any lifting device also continues to present a challenge.

Another design constraint will be the ascending speed of the climber. As geosynchronous orbit is at 35,786 km (22,236 mi), assuming the climber can reach the speed of a very fast car or train of 300 km/h (180 mph) it will take 5 days to climb to geosynchronous orbit.

Powering climber

Both power and energy are significant issues for climbers—the climbers need to gain a large amount of potential energy as quickly as possible to clear the cable for the next payload.

Various methods have been proposed to get that energy to the climber:

  • Transfer the energy to the climber through wireless energy transfer while it is climbing.
  • Transfer the energy to the climber through some material structure while it is climbing.
  • Store the energy in the climber before it starts – requires an extremely high specific energy such as nuclear energy.
  • Solar power – power compared to the weight of panels limits the speed of climb.

Wireless energy transfer such as laser power beaming is currently considered the most likely method. Using megawatt powered free electron or solid state lasers in combination with adaptive mirrors approximately 10 m (33 ft) wide and a photovoltaic array on the climber tuned to the laser frequency for efficiency. For climber designs powered by power beaming, this efficiency is an important design goal. Unused energy must be re-radiated away with heat-dissipation systems, which add to weight.

Yoshio Aoki, a professor of precision machinery engineering at Nihon University and director of the Japan Space Elevator Association, suggested including a second cable and using the conductivity of carbon nanotubes to provide power.

Various mechanical means of applying power have also been proposed; such as moving, looped or vibrating cables.


Several solutions have been proposed to act as a counterweight:

  • a heavy, captured asteroid;]
  • a space dock, space station or spaceport positioned past geostationary orbit; or
  • a further upward extension of the cable itself so that the net upward pull is the same as an equivalent counterweight;
  • parked spent climbers that had been used to thicken the cable during construction, other junk, and material lifted up the cable for the purpose of increasing the counterweight.

Extending the cable has the advantage of some simplicity of the task and the fact that a payload that went to the end of the counterweight-cable would acquire considerable velocity relative to the Earth, allowing it to be launched into interplanetary space. Its disadvantage is the need to produce greater amounts of cable material as opposed to using anything that has mass.

Alternative concepts

The original concept envisioned by Tsiolkovsky was a compression structure, a concept similar to an aerial mast. While such structures might reach the agreed altitude for space(100 km—62 mi), they are unlikely to reach geostationary orbit. The concept of a Tsiolkovsky tower combined with a classic space elevator cable has been suggested.[6]

A mini version[40] of the Space Elevator to access near-space altitudes of 20 km (12 mi) has been proposed by Canadian researchers. The structure would be pneumatically supported and free standing with control systems guiding the structure’s center of mass. Proposed uses include tourism and commerce, communications, wind generation and low-cost space launch.[41]

Other alternatives to a space elevator include an orbital ring, a pneumatic space tower,[42] a space fountain, a launch loop, a Skyhook, a space tether, a space hoist and theSpaceShaft.[43]

Launching into deep space

An object attached to a space elevator at a radius of approximately 53,100 km will be at escape velocity when released. Transfer orbits to the L1 and L2 Lagrangian points can be attained by release at 50,630 and 51,240 km, respectively, and transfer to lunar orbit from 50,960 km.

The velocities that might be attained at the end of Pearson’s 144,000 km (89,000 mi) cable can be determined. The tangential velocity is 10.93 kilometers per second (6.79 mi/s), which is more than enough to escape Earth’s gravitational field and send probes at least as far out as Jupiter. Once at Jupiter, a gravitational assist maneuver permits solar escape velocity to be reached.

Extraterrestrial elevators

A space elevator could also be constructed on other planets, asteroids and moons.

A Martian tether could be much shorter than one on Earth. Mars’ surface gravity is 38% of Earth’s, while it rotates around its axis in about the same time as Earth.[46] Because of this, Martian areostationary orbit is much closer to the surface, and hence the elevator would be much shorter. Current materials are already sufficiently strong to construct such an elevator. However, building a Martian elevator would be complicated by the Martian moon Phobos, which is in a low orbit and intersects the Equator regularly (twice every orbital period of 11 h 6 min).

A lunar space elevator can possibly be built with currently available technology about 50,000 kilometers (31,000 mi) long extending through the Earth-Moon L1 point from an anchor point near the center of the visible part of Earth’s moon. However, the lack of an atmosphere allows for other, perhaps better, alternatives to rockets, such as mass driver systems.

On the far side of the moon, a lunar space elevator would need to be very long (more than twice the length of an Earth elevator) but due to the low gravity of the Moon, can be made of existing engineering materials.

Rapidly spinning asteroids or moons could use cables to eject materials to convenient points, such as Earth orbits; or conversely, to eject materials to send the bulk of the mass of the asteroid or moon to Earth orbit or a Lagrangian point. Freeman Dyson, a physicist and mathematician, has suggested using such smaller systems as power generators at points distant from the Sun where solar power is uneconomical. For the purpose of mass ejection, it is not necessary to rely on the asteroid or moon to be rapidly spinning. Instead of attaching the tether to the equator of a rotating body, it can be attached to a rotating hub on the surface. This was suggested in 1980 as a “Rotary Rocket” by Pearson and described very succinctly on the Island One website as a “Tapered Sling”.

A space elevator using presently available engineering materials could be constructed between mutually tidally locked worlds, such as Pluto and Charon or the components of binary asteroid Antiope, with no terminus disconnect, according to Francis Graham of Kent State University. However, spooled variable lengths of cable must be used due to ellipticity of the orbits.


The construction of a space elevator is considered to be a large project. Like other historical large projects it entails technical risk: some advances in engineering, manufacturing and physical technology are required. Once a first space elevator is built, the second one and all others would have the use of the previous ones to assist in construction, making their costs considerably cheaper. Such follow-on space elevators would also benefit from the great reduction in technical risk achieved by the construction of the first space elevator.

Construction is conceived as the deployment of a long cable from a large spool. The spool is initially parked in a geostationary orbit above the planned anchor point. When a long cable is dropped “down” (toward Earth), it must be balanced by balancing mass being dropped “up” (away from Earth) for the whole system to remain on the geosynchronous orbit. Some designs imagine the balancing mass being another cable (with counterweight) extending upward, other designs elevate the spool itself as the main cable is paid out. When the lower end of the cable is so long as to reach the Earth, it can be anchored at some place. Once anchored, the center of mass is elevated upward more (by adding mass at the upper end or by paying out more cable). This adds more tension to the whole cable, which can then be used as an elevator cable.

Safety issues and construction challenges

Depending on transit times through the Van Allen radiation belts passengers will need to be protected from radiation by shielding, which adds mass to the climber and decreases payload. For early systems, transit times are expected to be long enough where, if unshielded, total exposure would be above levels considered safe.

A space elevator would present a navigational hazard, both to aircraft and spacecraft. Aircraft could be diverted by air-traffic control restrictions. All objects in stable orbits that haveperigee below the maximum altitude of the cable that are not synchronous with the cable will impact the cable eventually, unless avoiding action is taken. For spacecraft one potential solution proposed by Edwards is to use a movable anchor (a sea anchor) to allow the tether to “dodge” any space debris large enough to track.[30]

Impacts by space objects such as meteoroids, micrometeorites and orbiting man-made debris, pose another design constraint on the cable. A cable would need to be designed to maneuver out of the way of debris, or absorb impacts of small debris without breaking.


With a space elevator, materials might be sent into orbit at a fraction of the current cost. As of 2000, conventional rocket designs cost about US$11,000 per pound (US$25,000 perkilogram) for transfer to geostationary orbit. Current proposals envision payload prices starting as low as $100 per pound ($220 per kilogram), similar to the $5–$300/kg estimates of the Launch loop, but higher than the $310/ton to 500 km orbit quoted to Dr. Jerry Pournelle for an orbital airship system.

Philip Ragan, co-author of the book “Leaving the Planet by Space Elevator”, states that “The first country to deploy a space elevator will have a 95 percent cost advantage and could potentially control all space activities.”

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